From independence till the mid-1970s, Nigeria’s domestic rice production was enough to cover domestic consumption. From the late 1970s when the Land Use Act came into force, a period which coincided with the tail-end of the oil boom and a dramatic increase in the incomes of Nigerians, domestic demand for rice began to outstrip the domestic production. This trend was briefly reversed in the late 80s when SAP kicked in and eroded purchasing power. Since 1990, however, domestic demand for rice has continued to outstrip supply, in spite of significant growth in domestic production. The issue with rice in Nigeria is not that domestic production has not grown – it is simply that domestic consumption has continued to outgrow it, as Nigeria’s population growth continues at a rapid growth rate. What is needed is to improve productivity and build the infrastructure to reduce wastage and cost to consumers.